Australia

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Economic

AU-1: Carbon Pricing Mechanism (CPM)

Policy Sub-Type: Emissions Trading  ·  Policy Pyramid:

AU-3: Clean Energy Finance Corporation (CEFC) funding

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

AU-4: Clean Technology Program (CTP)

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

Administrative

AU-2: Generator Efficiency Standards (GES) (ENDED)

Policy Sub-Type: Standards  ·  Policy Pyramid:

AU-5: Energy Efficiency Opportunities Program (EEO)

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

Main Industry Characteristics

55% of total national energy-related CO2 emissions in Australia in 2009 result from the generation of electricity and heat.  This is the result from a strongly coal-dominated economy in the country, also illustrated by a relatively high share of the mining sector in energy consumption (4-5% of total national final and primary energy consumption respectively). Manufacturing industry consumes 30% of total final energy consumption and  32% of total primary energy consumption. Other sectors are relatively small compared to other countries, especially the residential sector, with only 13-16% of national final/primary energy consumption.

Within the manufacturing industry, non-ferrous metals are responsible for a relatively very high share of energy consumption 41-46%, predominantly due to the large aluminium sector. This also explains the small share of manufacturing industry in total national energy-related CO2 emissions of only 10%, as this sector strongly depends on electricity rather than fuels (and emissions associated with the electricity consumed are attributed to the electricity generating sections). Aside from non-ferrous metals, the food and tobacco industry accounts for a relatively high share of energy consumption (16% of final energy), while the steel sector (13%) and chemicals (9%) are relatively small compared to those in other countries.

Manufacturing industry in Australia comprises relatively low value-added industries, contributing only 9% to national GDP. This reflects the dominance of base materials in Australia, where energy prices can have a strong impact on profitability and these sectors can have strong positions .

The above factors have resulted in the past in a strong reliance on voluntary measures (voluntary reporting, voluntary targets for energy savings, renewables, emission reductions) and on measures that do not differentiate between different fuel types (i.e. not stimulating a shift away from carbon-intensive fuels and processes). This is currently changing to a certain extent in the newly adopted Clean Energy package (2011), strongly based on the Carbon Price Mechanism, although significant compensation mechanisms introduced for industry, electricity generators and the mining sector.

National Gross Domestic Product: 630,762.00 (Mln Australian dollars (AUD)) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mln Australian dollars (AUD)
Agriculture, hunting & fishing 32,156.00
Commercial 0.00
Construction 103,338.00
Energy 164,919.00
Manufacturing 107,808.00
Other services 0.00
Trade, transport 222,541.00
TOTAL 630,762.00
See Chart

2010 [1]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector Mln Austrlian dollars (AUD)
Basic metals 24,114.00
Chemicals & plastics 11,917.00
Equipment & machinery 18,935.00
Food & tobacco 21,635.00
Fuel production 2,099.00
Other non-metallic minerals 5,258.00
Pulp & paper 13,846.00
Textile 3,047.00
Wood 4,247.00
TOTAL 105,098.00
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2007 [2]

Final Energy Consumption: 77,575.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 2,160.00
Construction 560.00
Industry 21,981.00
Mining and quarrying 2,165.00
Other 5,046.00
Residential 10,158.00
Services 6,888.00
Transport 28,617.00
TOTAL 77,575.00
See Chart

2010 [3]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 2,662.00
Equipment & machinery 366.00
Food & tobacco 2,363.00
Iron & steel 3,305.00
Non-ferrous metals 8,160.00
Non-metallic minerals 2,617.00
Non-specified 493.00
Paper, pulp & print 1,268.00
Refining 544.00
Textile & leather 204.00
TOTAL 21,982.00
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2010 [3]

Primary Energy Consumption: 98,346.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 2,398.00
Construction 569.00
Industry 28,708.00
Mining and quarrying 3,162.00
Other 5,046.00
Residential 16,368.00
Services 13,085.00
Transport 29,010.00
TOTAL 98,346.00
See Chart

2010 [3]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 3,159.00
Equipment & machinery 625.00
Food & tobacco 2,917.00
Iron & steel 3,691.00
Non-ferrous metals 12,130.00
Non-metallic minerals 3,089.00
Non-specified 597.00
Paper, pulp & print 1,678.00
Refining 544.00
Textile & leather 278.00
TOTAL 28,708.00
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2010 [3]

Direct CO2 Emissions Only: 383.50 (Mt) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Agriculture, forestry & fishing 6.00
Autoproducers 5.00
Construction 1.60
Manufacturing 42.90
Mining & quarrying 4.10
Other 0.00
Other Energy Industries 31.20
Public electricity & heat 198.10
Residential 8.00
Services 4.40
Transport 82.20
TOTAL 383.50
See Chart

2010 [4]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector Mt
Chemicals 5.90
Equipment & machinery 0.40
Food & tobacco 2.90
Iron & steel 5.20
Non-Ferrous Metals 13.80
Non-Metallic Minerals 6.20
Other 0.10
Other Energy Industries 31.20
Paper & printing 1.40
Textile & leather 0.40
Wood 0.20
TOTAL 67.70
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2010 [4]

Total CO2 Emissions: 394.90 (Mt)

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Manufacturing and construction 142.70
Other energy industries 32.60
Other sectors 67.60
Residential 66.70
Transport 85.30
TOTAL 394.90
See Chart

2009 [5]

References

[1] OECD statistics, 2013. http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx

[2] EU KLEMS, 2007, http://www.euklems.net/

[3] IEA Statistics: Energy Balances © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[4] IEA Statistics: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[5] IEA, CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2009. On-line data service, 2011 edition.