China

Policy Pyramid

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Administrative

CN-3a: Top-1000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-5: Small Plant Closures and Phasing Out of Outdated Capacity

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-4: Industrial Energy Performance Standards

Policy Sub-Type: Standards  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-1: Energy Intensity Target of the 11th Five Year Plan

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-3b: Top-10,000 Energy-Consuming Enterprises Program

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-2: Energy and Carbon Intensity Targets of the 12th Five Year Plan

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-19: Low Carbon Development Zones

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-14: Demand Side Management Implementation Measures

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-13: EE Financing Regulations and Instruments

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-9: Energy Efficiency Appraisals for New Large Industrial Projects

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-18: Promotion of the Energy Conservation and Environmental Protection Industry

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-6: Energy Development Plan of the 12th Five Year Plan

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-7: Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law (Revision)

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-11: Boiler Action Plan

Policy Sub-Type: Information & Outreach  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-8: Guiding Statement on Overcapacity

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-10: Regulation on Energy Conservation Supervision

Policy Sub-Type: Standards  ·  Policy Pyramid:

Economic

CN-12: Ten Key Projects Program

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-15: Financial Rewards for Energy-Saving Technical Retrofits

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-16: Differential Electricity Pricing for Industry

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-22: Carbon Emissions Trading Pilots

Policy Sub-Type: Emissions Trading  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-17: Energy Performance Contracting and Energy Service Companies (ESCOs)

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-20: Demand Side Management Pilot Cities

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

CN-21: Pilot programs on remanufactured products

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

External Resources

Inventory of China’s Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

Fridley et al. (2011). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

China’s Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

Zhou et al. (2011). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Promotion Systems and Incentives for Adoption of Energy Management Systems in Industry (PDF | 0.52mb)

Goldberg, Reinaud and Taylor (2011). Promotion Systems and Incentives for Adoption of Energy Management Systems in Industry – Some International Lessons Learned Relevant for China is a report by the Institute from Industrial Productivity provides some suggestions for China’s efforts to roll out implementation of EnMS, based on international experience.

工业领域能源管理体系的推广机制 与激励政策 一些可供中国参考的国际经验 (PDF | 0.66mb)

Goldberg, Reinaud and Taylor (2011) in Chinese (Mandarin).

Energy audit practices in China: national and local experiences and issues

Shen, B., Price, L. and Lu, H. (2010). Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Main Industry Characteristics

Note that definitions of China's sectors are different from those used for other countries, especially for value added data, partly because another source had to be used [1], partly because of the different statistical approaches used in China.

Heavy industry has a very high share of energy consumption and emissions in China. Especially the iron & steel sector (part of "basic metals" in some of the graphs) and the cement sector (part of "non-metallic minerals" in some graphs) are large contributors of industrial energy consumption and CO2 emissions. These sectors together comprise 53% of industrial final energy consumption and 62% of direct industrial CO2 emissions. The latter is especially due to the heavily coal-dominated fuel mix in both sectors as well as the process emissions from calcination in cement production. Note that the shares for these two sectors mentioned here correspond to a total final energy share of 70% as per the Chinese statistics [1]. In the graphs above, the final energy consumption share of  manufacturing industry amounts to 50%, a considerable difference. There is no easy reconcilliation between the two sources (*1).
The figures for industrial value added are of limited value, due to incomparable sector boundaries with the energy and emission data (see e.g. the 1% value added for basic metals).

National Gross Domestic Product: 257,306.10 (Mln/yr current RMB) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mln/yr current RMB
Construction 14,264.10
Manufacturing Industry 110,535.00
Primary Industry 28,627.00
Tertiary sectors (services) 103,880.00
TOTAL 257,306.10
See Chart

2007 [1]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector Mln/yr current RMB
Basic metals 67,263.00
Chemicals & plastics 1,016,750.00
Food & tobacco 405,503.00
Fuel production 605,378.00
Other 4,246,770.00
Other non-metallic minerals 882,889.00
Pulp & paper 510,754.00
Textile 1,599,350.00
TOTAL 9,334,657.00
Back to Chart

2007

Final Energy Consumption: 1,604,513.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 31,810.00
Construction 21,134.00
Industry 810,778.00
Mining and quarrying 14,453.00
Other 133,624.00
Residential 355,241.00
Services 63,308.00
Transport 174,165.00
TOTAL 1,604,513.00
See Chart

2010 [2]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 99,473.00
Equipment & machinery 63,349.00
Food & tobacco 27,342.00
Iron & steel 322,931.00
Non-ferrous metals 43,006.00
Non-metallic minerals 152,505.00
Non-specified 29,977.00
Paper, pulp & print 21,581.00
Refining 20,598.00
Textile & leather 30,017.00
TOTAL 810,779.00
Back to Chart

2010 [2]

Primary Energy Consumption: 2,285,971.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 42,097.00
Construction 27,110.00
Industry 1,282,114.00
Mining and quarrying 26,141.00
Other 133,624.00
Residential 505,292.00
Services 91,290.00
Transport 178,303.00
TOTAL 2,285,971.00
See Chart

2010 [2]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 236,116.00
Equipment & machinery 117,318.00
Food & tobacco 54,215.00
Iron & steel 406,419.00
Non-ferrous metals 89,487.00
Non-metallic minerals 179,885.00
Non-specified 50,909.00
Paper, pulp & print 49,849.00
Refining 20,598.00
Textile & leather 77,319.00
TOTAL 1,282,115.00
Back to Chart

2010 [2]

Direct CO2 Emissions Only: 7,217.20 (Mt) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Agriculture, forestry & fishing 78.20
Autoproducers 85.40
Construction 54.30
Manufacturing 2,248.60
Mining & quarrying 24.70
Other 39.80
Other Energy Industries 275.50
Public heat & electricity 3,463.90
Residential 302.40
Services 136.40
Transport 508.00
TOTAL 7,217.20
See Chart

2010 [3]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector Mt
Chemicals 184.60
Equipment & machinery 100.80
Food & tobacco 65.80
Iron & steel 968.40
Non-Ferrous Metals 51.50
Non-Metallic Minerals 498.10
Other 43.30
Other Energy Industries 275.50
Paper & printing 47.90
Textile & leather 44.00
Wood 10.10
TOTAL 2,290.00
Back to Chart

2010 [3]

Total CO2 Emissions: 6,508.20 (Mt)

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Manufacturing & construction 4,137.60
Other energy industries 457.70
Other sectors 631.00
Residential 804.00
Transport 477.90
TOTAL 6,508.20
See Chart

2008 [4]

References

[1] China Industry Economic Statistical Yearbook of 1997-2009. Note: the sector breakdowns (and colour coding) for China are not the same as for other countries.

[2] IEA Statistics: Energy Balances © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[3] IEA Statistics: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[4] IEA Energy Statistics © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2010. CO2 emissions from fuel combustion extract.