Germany

Policy Pyramid

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Policy Categorization

Economic

GE-1: EU emissions trading system (EU ETS)

Policy Sub-Type: Emissions Trading  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-3: Rebate on energy and electricity tax for energy intensive companies “Spitzenausgleich”

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-4: KfW Environmental and Energy Efficiency Programmes (formally ERP)

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-5: CHP Law (Kraft Wärme Kopplungsgesetz)

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-6: BMU environmental innovation programme

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-7: Energy advice for SMEs

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-10: BMWi promotion of highly-efficient cross-sectoral technologies

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-11: KfW financing initiative energy transition

Policy Sub-Type: Incentives & Subsidies  ·  Policy Pyramid:

Administrative

GE-2: Voluntary agreements with German industry

Policy Sub-Type: Negotiated Agreement  ·  Policy Pyramid:

Information & Outreach

GE-8: Partnership for Climate Protection and Energy

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

GE-9: 30 Pilot Network Project

Policy Sub-Type:   ·  Policy Pyramid:

Main Industry Characteristics

Almost 40% of the CO2 emissions (from fuel combustion) in Germany in 2009 were emitted by the public electricity and heat sector and 13% by the manufacturing industry. The iron and steel sector emitted around a quarter of emissions in the manufacturing industry. Energy intensity of the German industry (measured in energy use per unit of value added) is relatively low compared to the EU average and the average of IEA countries (IEA, 2009)[1].

National Gross Domestic Product: 2,140,610.00 (Mln Euro's) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mln Euro's
Agriculture, hunting & fishing 17,310.00
Commercial 666,690.00
Construction 92,140.00
Energy 65,580.00
Manufacturing 408,800.00
Other services 516,440.00
Trade, transport 373,650.00
TOTAL 2,140,610.00
See Chart

2009 [1]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector millions of Euros
Basic metals 62.00
Chemicals 55.00
Equipment & machinery 218.00
Food & tobacco 38.00
Fuel production 5.00
Rubber, plastics, and other non-metallic minerals 37.00
Textile 6.00
Wood and paper products 24.00
TOTAL 445.00
Back to Chart

2010 [2]

Final Energy Consumption: 234,955.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 774.00
Construction 73.00
Industry 62,837.00
Mining and quarrying 437.00
Other 23,645.00
Residential 62,028.00
Services 32,111.00
Transport 53,050.00
TOTAL 234,955.00
See Chart

2010 [3]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 13,241.00
Equipment & machinery 8,523.00
Food & tobacco 4,918.00
Iron & steel 14,614.00
Non-ferrous metals 2,148.00
Non-metallic minerals 6,374.00
Non-specified 4,592.00
Paper, pulp & print 6,237.00
Refining 1,601.00
Textile & leather 589.00
TOTAL 62,837.00
Back to Chart

2010 [3]

Primary Energy Consumption: 335,867.00 (ktoe) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector ktoe
Agriculture, forestry, fishing 1,632.00
Construction 154.00
Industry 99,590.00
Mining and quarrying 651.00
Other 23,645.00
Residential 95,706.00
Services 59,846.00
Transport 54,643.00
TOTAL 335,867.00
See Chart

2010 [3]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector ktoe
Chemicals 26,289.00
Equipment & machinery 16,463.00
Food & tobacco 7,188.00
Iron & steel 17,387.00
Non-ferrous metals 3,576.00
Non-metallic minerals 7,606.00
Non-specified 7,937.00
Paper, pulp & print 10,448.00
Refining 1,601.00
Textile & leather 1,095.00
TOTAL 99,590.00
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2010 [3]

Direct CO2 Emissions Only: 761.50 (Mt) Compare all Countries

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Agriculture, forestry & fishing 0.00
Autoproducers 33.60
Construction 0.00
Manufacturing 115.30
Mining & quarrying 0.60
Other 0.00
Other Energy Industries 26.30
Public heat & electricity 293.30
Residential 101.00
Services 45.90
Transport 145.50
TOTAL 761.50
See Chart

2010 [4]

Sub-sector Contribution to Manufacturing Industry

Sector Mt
Chemicals 15.60
Equipment & machinery 8.40
Food & tobacco 7.80
Iron & steel 28.70
Non-Ferrous Metals 2.30
Non-Metallic Minerals 16.10
Other 2.50
Other Energy Industries 26.30
Paper & printing 7.10
Textile & leather 0.80
Wood 0.60
TOTAL 116.20
Back to Chart

2010 [4]

Total CO2 Emissions: 750.10 (Mt)

Sectoral Contribution

Sector Mt
Manufacturing and construction 221.10
Other energy industries 33.90
Other sectors 133.00
Residential 205.70
Transport 156.40
TOTAL 750.10
See Chart

2009 [5]

References

[1] OECD statistics, 2009, http://stats.oecd.org/index.aspx

[2] EU KLEMS, 2012, http://www.euklems.net/

[3] IEA Statistics: Energy Balances © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[4] IEA Statistics: CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion © OECD/International Energy Agency, 2013.

[5] IEA, CO2 emissions from fuel combustion, 2009. On-line data service, 2011 edition.